Dispatch rules

Dispatch rules (also known as routes) map URLs to controllers, and the other way around.

A dispatch rule contains a pattern that is matched against the path of an incoming request URL. They are also used for the reverse action of generating request URLs in Zotonic.

When an URL is requested by the web browser, the dispatch system looks at that URL and matches it agains all dispatch rules that are loaded. Based on the match, it will call a controller to handle the request.

Defining dispatch rules

Dispatch rules are defined in a dispatch file. The dispatch file must be placed inside the dispatch/ directory of a module or your site.

A module or site can have multiple dispatch files, and they can have any filename. Nota bene: the file may not have the extension “.erl”. Otherwise it will be compiled by the Emakefile, which will result in errors as a dispatch file is not a valid Erlang module.

The content of a dispatch file is an Erlang list of dispatch rules.

An example dispatch file looks like this:

%% Example dispatch rules
    {home,      [],                         controller_page,  [ {template, "home.tpl"}, {id, page_home} ]},
    {features,  ["features"],               controller_page,  [ {template, "features.tpl"}, {id, page_features} ]},
    {collection,["collection", id, slug],   controller_page,  [ {template, "collection.tpl"} ]},
    {category,  ["category", id, slug],     controller_page,  [ {template, "category.tpl"} ]},
    {documentation, ["documentation", id, slug], controller_page, [ {template, "documentation.tpl"} ]}

The module indexer will load all dispatch files. They can be reloaded with the “rescan” button in the admin modules page. Illegal dispatch files are skipped, showing an error message in the Zotonic shell.

When your dispatch rules don’t work, check first if there are any typos, then check if your dispatch rules are not overruled by a module that loads earlier. Modules are loaded on priority first, then on module name.

Anatomy of a dispatch rule

A single dispatch rule looks like:

{page, ["page", id], controller_page, [{some_option,true}]}

Where the elements are:

  1. a name identifying the dispatch rule (used by {% url %})
  2. the path matching the request URL’s path
  3. the name of the controller (controller_page in this example)
  4. a property list with optional arguments to the controller module. Refer to the documentation for respective controller for available options.

See also

The full list of available Controllers.

Dispatch rule naming

Zotonic extends Basho’s Webmachine by allowing (or actually, requiring) dispatch rules to be named. The name is the first element of the dispatch rule tuple, and consists of a simple atom. The z_dispatcher:url_for function takes a name and creates the URL for it. This allows the developer to not hardcode the URLs everywhere, but use these symbolic names instead.

Dispatch rule names do not have to be unique: if multiple rules with the same name exist, it will look at the first rule that matches the given name and the optional extra arguments that were given.

Say I have these rules:

{rulename, ["foo", "bar"], controller_template, [{template, "foo.tpl"}]},
{rulename, ["foo", var], controller_template, [{template, "foo.tpl"}]},

Then when I create a URL like this:

{% url rulename %}

It will match the first rule (rendering the url /foo/bar) because no arguments were given. However when I add an argument:

{% url rulename var=1 %}

It will render the URL /foo/1, matching the second dispatch rule and adding the argument in the creation of the URL.

In a template the value of the argument can be retrieved with the q variable. In the example where the atom var is used:

{{ q.var }}

Note that any extra arguments that are given, are added as query-string parameters:

{% url rulename var=1 x="hello" %}

Will result in the URL /foo/1?x=hello.

URL match pattern

Every element in the URL pattern list matches to a “directory level” in the request URL. In the example, the pattern will match a URL like “page/1234” but not “pages/1234” and also not “page/1234/x”.

The possible path elements are:

  • Strings: fixed parts that must match with the request url
  • atoms: bind to the text at that position
  • ‘*’: a special atom binding to the remaining part of the request URL, this must be the last element of the path

URL matching using regular expressions

Some developers need very particular control of dispatch in order for their applications to function as they want them to.

Say you want to only accept numerical arguments as an id in:

{foo, ["foo", id], controller_foo, []}

The you can use a dispatch rule with a regular expression test:

{foo, ["foo", {id, "^[0-9]+$"}], controller_foo, []}

or, you can specify http://erldocs.com/R14B02/stdlib/re.html?i=14&search=re:#run/3 some extra options:

{foo, ["foo", {id, "1?2?", [notempty]}], controller_foo, []}

(In this case, the id must contain a 1 or a 2, amongst any other characters)

URL matching using callback modules

When all else fails, there is another option when you are, really, really, desperate for a specific check. You can call a module:

{foo, ["foo", {id, {foo_module, foo_check}}], controller_foo, []}

Though note that this is (currently) an extremely expensive operation, because it is called in the z_sites_dispatcher gen_server which handles the matching of all incoming requests for all sites in one single process.

When matching against “foo/bar”, the module is called as:

foo_module:foo_check("bar", Context).

Dispatch rule troubleshoooting

Check the Syntax: Load your dispatch file in from the EShell with file:consult/1 and see if it returns errors.

Dispatch Rules are Order-sensitive: Dispatch rules are processed top-to-bottom in the file. Are any rules above your rule capturing the cases you are trying to match. If so, move your rule up, but bear in mind that you don’t want to break those rules either.

View which values are passed to the template using tag debug:

{% debug %}

URL rewriting

Before URLs are matched, they first can be rewritten to match something else. This is a powerful mechanism that allows you do anything you like with URLs.

The URL rewriting mechanism allows one to set extra context variables or change the (internal) URL so different dispatch rules get triggered.

mod_translation uses this mechanism to prefix each URL with the language code of the currently selected language.


document this fully, using mod_translation example

Domain-dependent language selection

An application of URL rewriting allows you to set the Zotonic language based on the domain that is being requested on your site. To set up domain-based language detection using the following code snippet:

observe_dispatch_rewrite(#dispatch_rewrite{host=Host}, {Parts, Args}, _Context) ->
    Language = case Host of
                   "example.nl" -> nl;
                   "example.de" -> de;
                   _ -> en  %% default language
    {Parts, [{z_language, Language}|Args]}.

This leaves the request URI intact (the Parts variable), but injects the z_language variable into the request context, this overriding the language selection.

For this setup to work, this requires you to have the {redirect, false} option in your site, and the appropriate hostalias directives for each host. See Anatomy of a site for more details on this.

Dispatch rule options

There is one dispatch rule option that is valid for all dispatch rules: allow_frame

Normally pages are not allowed to be displayed inside a frame on another domain than the domain of served frame.

This is done by setting the HTTP header: X-Frame-Options: sameorigin

If this option is given then the X-Frame-Options header is omitted and the dispatch rule is allowed to be displayed inside a frame on any website.

Unmatched hosts/domains

The dispatcher finds the correct site based on the Host in the request. If no site can be found then the dispatcher will first check all enabled sites with a #dispatch_host notification to see if any site has a known redirect.

If this fails then the dispatcher will select a default site (usually zotonic_status) to handle the request.

If no site is running then a bare bones 404 Not Found page will be shown.

See mod_custom_redirect for redirecting unknown domains.

Unmatched paths

If the dispatcher can’t find a match a dispatch rule against the request path then it will check the site’s modules using a #dispatch notification.

The module mod_base will check the request path against the page_path property of all resources. After that the module mod_custom_redirect will check the configured redirect locations.

Dispatch rule BNF

A dispatch rule is built up as follows:

{RuleName, UrlPattern, ControllerModule, ControllerArgs}
RuleName = atom()
PathSpec = [PathSegmentSpec]
PathSegmentSpec = StaticMatch | Wildcard | Variable
StaticMatch = string()
Wildcard = '*'
PathVariable = atom() | {atom(), RegExp} | {atom{}, RegExp, ReOptions}
RegExp = string()
ReOptions = [term()]
ResourceModule = atom()
ResourceArgs = [{Key,Value}]

All PathVariables in the matching rule are made available to the resource through z_context. The ResourceArgs proplist is passed to ControllerModule:init/1.

PathVariables are part of the request-scope configuration of ControllerModule . Things like the ID, name or category of a page being requested can be gathered effectively here. Judicious use of PathVariables can substantially reduce the number of dispatch rules while making them easier to read.

ControllerArgs is the rule-scope configuration of ControllerModule. It makes it possible to reuse a well-designed resource module in many dispatch rules with different needs. ControllerArgs is effective for establishing implementation details like the template to be used, whether or not to do caching and where to load static resources from.

Zotonic dispatch rules are identical to Webmachine’s with the addition of RuleName. Webmachine’s dispatch rules are described in detail at http://webmachine.basho.com/dispatcher.html .